Deadlock, livelock, and starvation are all different types of concurrency issues that can occur in Java programs. Here are the differences between them:
- Deadlock: A deadlock occurs when two or more threads are blocked, waiting for each other to release a resource that they need to proceed. In other words, each thread is holding a resource that the other thread needs to continue, and neither thread can make progress. Deadlocks can cause the application to freeze or become unresponsive.
- Livelock: A livelock occurs when two or more threads are actively trying to resolve a concurrency issue, but their actions are preventing each other from making progress. In other words, each thread is trying to be polite and give way to the other thread, but this results in a never-ending cycle of actions without any actual progress. Livelocks can cause the application to consume high CPU usage and become unresponsive.
- Starvation: Starvation occurs when a thread is unable to make progress because it is continually being denied access to a shared resource that it needs to proceed. This can happen when other threads are constantly using the resource, or when the scheduling algorithm is unfair and always gives preference to other threads. Starvation can cause the application to slow down and become unresponsive for the affected thread.
To prevent these issues, we can use various concurrency techniques, such as using locks and synchronized blocks correctly, using thread-safe data structures, and writing thread-safe code. We can also use tools like thread dumps and profilers to identify and diagnose concurrency issues in our code.